This article expands upon some of the ideas presented in the earlier blog, Subject-Specific Gifted Services:
This is when we need to start shifting our thinking from creating one gifted program that serves the “all-around gifted student” to providing services for students with strengths in specific areas. This shift in thinking helps us to be more responsive to our students’ needs and helps ensure that they are challenged in school every day.
Subject acceleration (also called content acceleration) is useful for students who have demonstrated advanced ability in one or more academic areas. Examples include a 2nd grader moving into the 3rd grade classroom for reading, a student taking an Advanced Placement (AP) course, or grouping several advanced 6th graders for math instruction. Subject acceleration can be appropriate for a high-ability student who isn’t recommended for whole-grade acceleration, exhibits an uneven academic profile with an extreme strength area, or has already skipped a grade but needs additional challenge in one area.
Some people might be concerned that subject acceleration may cause academic harm or put students in situations that are too challenging. Research (such as that provided in A Nation Empowered) tells us otherwise:
- High ability students engage in abstract thinking at a younger age than typical students.
- Accelerated students do not have gaps in their academic backgrounds.
- Accelerated students will not run out of courses before high school graduation. (Students never really run out of content to study, but the high school might not offer the next course that is needed. In this situation, a student might need to utilize other options, such as dual enrollment or online coursework.)
- Accelerated students do not “burn out.” Research shows that acceleration leads to higher levels of achievement.
Others may argue that, “We already have enrichment, so why do students need content acceleration?” We agree that STEM clubs, science fairs, English festivals, and pull-out programs provide valuable enrichment. However, they do not provide a systematic progression through the curriculum.
Subject acceleration has many advantages:
- The regular classroom teacher does not have to search for materials for the advanced student, because that student is removed during class (for example, the student moves to a different class for math).
- It is more likely that the student will be grouped with intellectual peers.
- The student receives credit for work completed.
- The student is appropriately challenged and therefore remains interested in the subject (and in school).
- Research clearly supports the use of acceleration with academically talented students.
The disadvantages of subject acceleration include:
- Although the student is now working at a higher level, the pace may still be too slow.
- If the student is accelerated by only one year, there may be little new content.
- The student may not receive credit for high school courses completed before enrolling in high school due to district policies.
- Additional planning and discussion time may be required, if subject acceleration is new in a school or to a particular group of educators.
- Long-term planning is essential, so the student does not “run out” of coursework before graduating from high school.
Utilizing subject acceleration can be challenging, and it requires us to consider a variety of questions:
- How are grades and credit assigned?
- When completing the school’s regular testing, which grade-level achievement test does the student take (“age-appropriate” or new grade)?
- What transportation is needed?
- How do we schedule the same subject at the same time for the two grade levels? (For example, one district offers math at the same time every day across the district, so students don’t miss another subject if they are accelerated for math.)
- What indicators of accelerated coursework are needed on the student’s transcript?
- How is class rank determined?
Subject acceleration requires careful thought and planning. However, the time invested in thinking through some of the challenges and long-term issues presented by subject acceleration provides an important result: students who are appropriately challenged and engaged in school.
- See the blog, Who Needs Subject Acceleration: The Nuts and Bolts of Decision-Making.
- Subject acceleration policies are discussed in the new publication, Developing Academic Acceleration Policies, which is available for free here.
- Above-level testing is useful for identifying students who are ready for subject acceleration.
- A Nation Empowered includes a chapter on subject acceleration.